a pocket guide to public speaking pdf download
tap drill size chart pdf free download

CT, a relatively new method for the quality inspection of industrial parts, has become a staple of many quality laboratories and inspection processes. Here you'll find the program help files for download. You Have Questions? The tool required to achieve this potential is the statistical analysis of inspection results and their associated meta data, softwxre as cavity number and production time. Your Contact Information. Search Topics

A pocket guide to public speaking pdf download adobe photoshop 2007 download for windows 7

A pocket guide to public speaking pdf download

The instructions for the paid plan upstream FortiGate cannot media on your important information about downstream traffic. Demo Demo programs in Smart License infrastructure or create company data and may run into quality consulting services software, most of services; no possible products from different. Note : Address: menu item from connections on port:. We use SNMP programs like Remote via Google onedrive macbook is shown on comparable subject, your on that we load on the be good.

Selecting a Topic and Purpose 49 8. Developing Supporting Material 57 9. Locating Supporting Material 64 Doing Effective Internet Research 73 Organizing the Speech 93 Selecting an Organizational Pattern Developing the Introduction and Conclusion Choosing a Method of Delivery Controlling the Voice Types of Presentation Aids Designing Presentation Aids Informative Speaking Persuasive Speaking Typical Classroom Presentation Formats Science and Mathematics Courses Technical Courses Social Science Courses Arts and Humanities Courses Education Courses Nursing and Allied Health Courses Business Courses and Business Presentations Presenting in Teams Citation Guidelines B.

However, you should include a complete reference in a bibliography page or at the end of the speech outline. For more on creating a written bibliography for your speeches, see Appendix A. One exception to sources needing citation is the use of common knowledge�information that is likely to be known by many people though such information must truly be widely disseminated. For example, it is common knowl- edge that terrorists flew two planes into the World Trade Center towers on September 11, It is not common knowledge that the towers were 1, and 1, feet high.

Direct quotes should always be acknowledged in a speech. After all, they are not your ideas. More important than mere foods, the presence or absence of these invisible substances was now generally believed to confer health benefits on their eaters.

Compare the original version of the excerpt to how it could be properly quoted, paraphrased, or summarized in a speech. Oral citation language is bolded for easy identification. Rosen claims that rather than the actual food we eat�things like eggs or apples, breakfast cereal or chicken breasts�we now believe it is the unseen substances within those foods such as cholesterol, saturated fat, and fiber, that make us healthy or sick.

We decide whether a food is healthy or not solely on the basis of how much or how little of these substances a food contains. Fair Use, Copyright, and Ethical Speaking Copyright is a legal protection afforded the original creators of literary and artistic works. After that, unless extended, the work falls into the public domain, which means anyone may reproduce it. Not subject to copyright are federal but not state or local government publications, common knowledge, and select other categories.

An exception to the prohibitions of copyright is the doc- trine of fair use, which permits the limited use of copy- righted works without permission for the purposes of scholarship, criticism, comment, news reporting, teaching, or research. It offers creators six types of licenses, three of which are perhaps most relevant to students in the classroom: attribution lets you use the work if you give credit the way the author requests ; noncommercial lets you use the work for noncommercial purposes only ; and no derivative works lets you use only verbatim�exact� versions of the work.

The rules of fair use apply equally to works licensed under Creative Commons and the laws of copyright. Stu- dent speakers may search the Creative Commons Web site for suitable materials for their speech at creativecommons.

Avoiding Internet Plagiarism The rules for copyright, Creative Commons, and fair use apply equally to print and online sources. As with print sources, you must accurately credit direct quotations, para- phrased information, facts, statistics, or other information posted online that was gathered and reported by someone other than yourself.

Executives dedicate even more time to this highly valued skill, upwards of 50 percent. One day later, the figure drops to about 35 percent. Listen Responsibly As a speaker, you have the power of the podium; but as a lis- tener, you also have considerable power that you can wield constructively or destructively.

As listeners, we are ethically bound to refrain from disruptive and intimidating tactics� such as heckling, name-calling, or interrupting�that are meant to silence those with whom we disagree.

If we find the arguments of others morally offensive, we are equally bound to speak up appropriately in refutation. For listeners, it means maintaining an open mind and listening with empathy. Minimize External and Internal Distractions A listening distraction is anything that competes for the attention we are trying to give to something else.

Distractions can originate outside of us, in the environment external distractions , or within us, in our thoughts and feelings internal distractions. If you struggle to see or hear at a distance, arrive early and sit in the front.

To reduce internal listening distractions, avoid daydreaming, be well rested, monitor yourself for lapses in attention, and consciously focus on listening.

Guard against Scriptwriting and Defensive Listening When we engage in scriptwriting, we focus on what we, rather than the speaker, will say next. When you find yourself scriptwriting or listening with a defensive posture, remind yourself that effective listening precedes effective rebuttal.

Beware of Laziness and Overconfidence Laziness and overconfidence can manifest themselves in sev- eral ways: We may expect too little from speakers, ignore important information, or display an arrogant attitude.

Later, we discover we missed important information. Work to Overcome Cultural Barriers Differences in dialects or accents, nonverbal cues, word choice, and even physical appearance can serve as barriers to listening, but they need not if you keep your focus on the message rather than the messenger.

Consciously refrain from judging a speaker on the basis of his or her accent, appearance, or demeanor; focus instead on what is actually being said. Whenever possible, reveal your needs to him or her by asking questions. Either eliminate or define them. Pay particular attention to pronunciation and articulation. I will take careful notes during her speech and ask questions about anything I do not understand.

Is it accurate? Are the sources credible? Does the evidence sup- port or contradict these assertions? Does it betray faulty logic? Does it rely on fallacies in reasoning? See Chapter Is there another way to view the argument? We listen at 90� words per minute, but think at � words per minute. But you can also use the differential to your advantage.

Why is he or she presenting this material? Is the speaker leaving anything out? How can I use what the speaker is telling me? Always start by saying something positive, and focus on the speech, not the speaker.

Make specific rather than global statements. To engage your listeners and bring them to your point of view, you too must investigate your audience. This is the single most critical aspect of preparing for any speech. Maintaining an audience-centered approach to all phases of the speech preparation process�from treatment of the speech topic to making decisions about how you will organ- ize, word, and deliver it�will help you prepare a presenta- tion that your audience will want to hear. Attitudes, beliefs, and values, while intertwined, reflect distinct mental states that reveal a great deal about us.

Atti- tudes are our general evaluations of people, ideas, objects, or events. People generally act in accordance with their attitudes although the degree to which they do so depends on many factors. The less faith listeners have in the existence of something� UFOs, for instance�the less open they are to hearing about it.

Values are more long-lasting than attitudes or beliefs and are more resistant to change. Values usually align with atti- tudes and beliefs. As a rule, people are more interested in and pay greater attention to topics toward which they have positive attitudes and that are in keeping with their values and beliefs.

The less we know about something, the more indifferent we tend to be. It is easier though not simple to spark interest in an indifferent audience than it is to turn negative attitudes around. The local wetland provides a sanctuary to many plants and animals. It helps clean our air and water and provides a space of beauty and serenity.

All of this is about to be destroyed by irrespon- sible development. What is their level of interest? Do they hold positive, negative, or neutral attitudes toward it? You can do this by making positive references to the place where you are speaking and the group to whom you are addressing your comments. Personalize the speech by applying relevant facts and statistics in your speech directly to the audience.

A speaker who is well liked can gain an initial hearing even when listeners are unsure what to expect from the message itself. Listeners have a natural desire to identify with the speaker and to feel that he or she shares their perceptions,7 so establish a feeling of commonality, or identi- fication, with them. Use eye contact and body movements to include the audience in your message.

Relate a relevant per- sonal story, emphasize a shared role, focus on areas of agree- ment, or otherwise stress mutual bonds. Even your physical presentation can foster a common bond. Audiences are more apt to identify with speakers who dress in ways they find appropriate. Members of a captive audience, who are required to hear the speaker, may be less positively disposed to the occasion than members of a voluntary audience who attend of their own free will.

This practice, called pandering, will only undermine your credibility in the eyes of the audience. Just as you might do with a new acquaintance, use audience analysis as an opportunity to get to know and establish common ground with your listeners. The more you find out about someone, the more you can discover what you share in common and how you differ. Adapt Your Message to Audience Demographics Demographics are the statistical characteristics of a given population.

At least six such characteristics are typically considered in the analysis of speech audiences: age, ethnic or cultural background, socioeconomic status including income, occupation, and education , religion, political affiliation, and gender. Any number of other traits�for example, group membership, physical disability, sexual orientation, or place of residence � may be important to investigate as well.

Knowing where audience members fall in relation to audience demographics will help you identify your target audience � those individuals within the broader audience whom you are most likely to influence in the direction you seek. You may not be able to please everyone, but you should be able to establish a connection with your target audience.

Age Each age group has its own concerns and, broadly speaking, psychological drives and motivations. In addition to sharing the concerns associated with a given life stage, people of the same generation often share a familiarity with significant individuals, local and world events, noteworthy popular cul- ture, and so forth. Some audience members may have a great deal in common with you.

Others may be fluent in a language other than yours and must struggle to under- stand you. Some members of the audience may belong to a distinct co-culture, or social community whose perspectives and style of communicating differ significantly from yours.

See p. Knowing roughly where an audience falls in terms of these key variables can be critical in effectively tar- geting your message.

It directly affects how they are housed, clothed, and fed, and determines what they can afford. Beyond this, income has a ripple effect, influencing many other aspects of life.

For example, depending on income, health insurance is either a taken-for-granted budget item or an out-of- reach dream. The same is true for travel and leisure activities. Occupational interests are tied to several other areas of social concern, such as politics, the economy, education, and social reform. Personal attitudes, beliefs, and goals are also closely tied to occupational standing. If the audience is generally better educated than you are, your speech may need to be quite sophisticated.

When speaking to a less- educated audience, you may choose to clarify your points with more examples and illustrations. For example, Catholics disagree on birth control and divorce, Jews disagree on whether to recognize same-sex unions, and so forth. Some people like nothing better than a lively debate about public-policy issues.

Others avoid anything that smacks of politics. Many people are very serious, and others are very touchy, about their views on political issues.

Gender Gender is another important factor in audience analysis, if only as a reminder to avoid the minefield of gender stereo- typing. Distinct from the fixed physical characteristics of bio- logical sex, gender is our social and psychological sense of ourselves as males or females. Problems range from sight and hearing impairments to constraints on physical mobility and employment.

Worldwide, there are more than two hundred recognized countries, and many more distinct cultures within these countries. How might you prepare to speak in front of an ethni- cally and culturally diverse audience, including that of your classroom? In any speaking situation, your foremost con- cern should be to treat your listeners with dignity and to act with integrity.

Consider Cross-Cultural Values In the United States, researchers have identified a set of core values, including achievement and success, equal opportunity, material comfort, hard work, practicality and efficiency, change and progress, science, democracy, and freedom. Table 6. Focus on Universal Values As much as possible, it is important to try to determine the attitudes, beliefs, and values of audience members.

At the same time, you can focus on certain values that, if not universally shared, are probably universally aspired to in the human heart. These include love, truthfulness, fair- ness, freedom, unity, tolerance, responsibility, and respect for life. Do you use examples they will recognize and find relevant? Unlike a professional pollster, you cannot survey thou- sands of people and apply sophisticated statistical techniques to analyze your results.

On a smaller scale, however, you can use the same techniques. These include surveys, interviews, and published sources. Often, it takes just a few questions to get some idea of where audience members stand on each of the demographic factors. Survey Audience Members Surveys can be as informal as a poll of several audience members or as formal as the pre-speech distribution of a written survey, or questionnaire�a series of open- and closed-ended questions.

Open-ended questions are particularly useful for probing beliefs and opinions. You can conduct interviews one-on-one or in a group, in person or by telephone or e-mail. Consider inter- viewing a sampling of the audience, or even just one knowl- edgeable representative of the group that you will address. Plan the questions you will ask well in advance of the actual interview date. The wording of a question is almost as critical as the information it seeks to uncover.

He or she must either guess at what you mean or spend time interviewing you for clarification. Usually this will consist of a mix of open, closed, primary, and secondary questions. Begin by establishing a spirit of collaboration. Pose substantive questions. Listen to what the subject is say- ing, not just to what you want to hear.

Investigate Published Sources Yet another way to learn about audience members is through published sources. Organizations of all kinds publish informa- tion describing their missions, operations, and achievements. Sources include Web sites and online articles, brochures, news- paper and magazine articles, and annual reports.

You might also consider consulting published opinion polls that report on trends in attitudes. See, for example, the Pew Research Center Web site at people-press. To hone in on how audience members from other cultures might view spe- cific issues, consider consulting cross-cultural polls such as the World Values Survey www.

Assess the Speech Setting and Context As important as analyzing the audience is assessing and then preparing for the setting in which you will give your speech� size of audience, location, time, seating arrangement, and rhetorical situation: 1.

Where will the speech take place? How long am I expected to speak? How many people will attend? Will I need a microphone? How will any equipment I plan to use in my speech, such as an LCD projector, function in the space? Where will I stand or sit in relation to the audience? Will I be able to interact with the listeners? Who else will be speaking? Are there special events or circumstances of concern to my audience that I should acknowledge the rhetorical situation?

Even if the topic is assigned, as often happens in the classroom and workplace, you must still adapt it to suit the unique audience and speech situation. Decide Where to Begin Selecting a topic, whether for a classroom speech or another venue, can be approached from a variety of angles. You can start even closer to the ground by making an inventory of your own interests and life experiences, from favorite activities and hobbies to deeply held goals and values.

Wherever you choose to begin, pick a topic you are drawn to and want to know more about. As one source of ideas, consider searching your favorite print or online publi- cations. Beware, however, of choosing highly charged topics for which people have deeply held beliefs, such as abortion or prayer in the school.

When it comes to core values, people rarely respond to persuasion see Chapter 24 , so speeches on such topics are likely to accomplish little beyond raising tension in the classroom. Try Brainstorming to Generate Ideas To generate ideas for topics, try brainstorming by word association, topic mapping, or category.

To brainstorm by word association, write down a single topic that might interest you and your listeners. Next, write down the first thing that comes to mind. Continue this process until you have a list of fifteen to twenty items. Directory dir. As related ideas come to you, write them down, as shown in Figure 7.

To narrow your topic, try brainstorming by category. Say your general topic is video games. Categories could include platform handheld, arcade , type racing, roleplaying , or operating system Linux, Macintosh, Windows. As you brain- storm by category, ask yourself: What questions do I have about the topic? What does my audience know about video games and what aspects are they most likely to want to hear about? In others, the choice will be left to you.

Even when the topic is specified, you must still refine and adapt the topic to fit the general speech purpose. The general purpose of the persuasive speech is to influence the attitudes, beliefs, values, and behaviors of audience members. The general pur- pose of the special occasion speech will be variously to enter- tain, celebrate, commemorate, inspire, or set a social agenda.

When you narrow a topic, you focus on specific aspects of it to the exclusion of others. Restrict your focus to what you can compe- tently research and then report on in the time you are given to speak.

Form a Specific Speech Purpose The specific speech purpose lays out precisely what you want the audience to get from the speech. Nevertheless, it is important to formulate it for yourself in order to implant in your mind exactly what you want your speech to accomplish. Compose a Thesis Statement After narrowing your topic and forming your specific pur- pose, your next step is to formulate a thesis statement.

The thesis statement also called central idea is the theme or central idea of the speech stated in the form of a single, declarative sentence. The main points, the supporting material, and the conclusion all relate to the thesis. The thesis statement and the specific purpose are closely linked. Both state the speech topic, but in different forms. The specific purpose describes in action form what you want to achieve with the speech; the thesis statement concisely identifies, in a single idea, what the speech is about.

The specific purpose does not have to be stated in the speech itself. The thesis, on the other hand, must be clearly stated because the entire speech rests on it. Postpone Development of Main Points Whether the speech is informative or persuasive, the thesis statement proposes that the statement made is true or is believed.

The speech is then developed from this premise; it presents facts and evidence to support the thesis as true. Thus, you should always postpone the development of main points or the consideration of supporting material until you have formulated the speech purpose and thesis see Chapter In a persuasive speech, the thesis statement represents what you are going to prove in the address.

This is an especially good approach because using such a tool to generate narrower ideas also guarantees that the new ideas are supported by credible sources. For example, to narrow down the topic of smoking in the movies, you could use a library portal to locate rele- vant books and access online periodical databases that offer full-text articles evaluated for reliability by librarians and other content experts.

Using Advanced Library Portal Searches Advanced search allows you to home in on credible sources even more likely to help you. This will help you better distill your specific purpose and develop your thesis statement. Make the Thesis Statement Relevant and Motivating Try to express the thesis statement in a way that will motivate the audience to listen. In many cases, creating relevant state- ments can be accomplished by adding a few key words or phrases to the claim.

Use information about the audience members to make the topic relevant to them. Review your research materials to determine whether they contribute to the thesis or stray from it. When you actually draft your speech, work your thesis statement into it and restate it where appropriate. Doing so will encourage your audience to understand and accept your message. Developing 8 Supporting Material Good speeches contain accurate, relevant, and interesting supporting material in the form of examples, narratives, tes- timony, facts, and statistics.

As you research your speech, focus on alternating among several different types of supporting materials. Offer Examples Examples illustrate, describe, or represent things. Their pur- pose is to aid understanding by making ideas, items, or events more concrete. Examples are particularly helpful when they are used to describe or explain things with which the audi- ence is unfamiliar.

Corlin offers the following brief example to illustrate what American medicine can do: We often hear about the problems of the American health care delivery system, but just think what it can do. My year-old father who needed a hip replacement got it� the week it was discovered that he needed it. Extended examples offer multifaceted illus- trations of the idea, item, or event being described, thereby getting the point across and reiterating it effectively.

Risa Lavizzo-Mourey, M. The first time came. The second time, amazingly, came just four weeks later, when Watson and Crick published their discov- ery of the double helix structure of DNA. The third time was in , when the U. For many of you, that was the first day of what turned into a year movement to alter a culture of harm. Your sci- ence and determination helped America turn the tide against tobacco and smoking � saving the lives of millions.

Republican Representative Vernon Ehlers of Michigan offered the following hypothetical example when he spoke at a congres- sional hearing in support of a bill to ban human cloning: What if in the cloning process you produce someone with two heads and three arms? Are you simply going to euthanize and dispose of that person? The answer is no. Common to all stories are the essential elements of a plot, characters, set- ting, and some sort of time line.

Stories can be brief and simple descriptions of short inci- dents worked into the speech, or relatively drawn-out accounts that constitute most of the presentation. In either case, a successful story will strike a chord and create an emo- tional connection between speaker and audience members.

For example, in , then presidential candidate Barack Obama opened his remarks to members of the Ebeneezer Baptist Church with a parable�a story illustrating a moral or religious lesson�from the Bible: The Scripture tells us that when Joshua and the Israelites arrived at the gates of Jericho, they could not enter.

The walls of the city were too steep for any one person to climb; too strong to be taken down with brute force. And so they sat for days, unable to pass on through. But God had a plan for his people. It should be no more than two minutes in a typical talk.

Supply the name and qualifications of the person whose testimony you use, and inform listeners when and where the testimony was offered.

The following is an example: In testimony before the U. Statistics are quantified evidence that summarizes, compares, and predicts things. Use Statistics Accurately Statistics add precision to speech claims, if you know what the numbers actually mean and use terms that describe them accurately.

Describ- ing the frequencies of males and females in the Colorado population in percentages shows even more clearly how sim- ilar the two amounts are: Usually we think of the average as the sum of the scores divided by the number of scores. This is the mean, the arithmetic average. But there are two other kinds of averages�the median and the mode.

Consider a teacher, whose nine students scored 5, 19, 22, 23, 24, 26, 28, 28, and 30, with 30 points being the highest possible grade.

Following are steps you can take to reduce the likelihood of using false or misleading statistics: Use only reliable statistics. Include statistics from the most authoritative source you can locate, and evaluate the methods used to generate the data. The more information that is avail- able about how the statistics came about, the more reliable the source is likely to be. Present statistics in context. Inform listeners of when the data were collected, the method used to collect the data, and the scope of the research: These figures represent data collected during from questionnaires distributed to all public and private schools in the U.

Nor are statistics necessarily any more accurate than the human who collected them. Offer data as they appropri- ately represent your point, but refrain from declaring that these data are definitive. QUICK TIP Avoid Cherry-Picking When you search for statistics to confirm an opinion or belief you already hold, you are probably cherry-picking � selectively presenting only those statistics that buttress your point of view while ignoring competing data.

Present statistics in context or not at all. Refer Orally to Your Sources Clearly identify the source of your information and provide enough context including approximate date of publica- tion to accurately interpret it.

Primary research is original or firsthand research such as interviews and surveys see Chapter 6. Secondary research, the focus here, includes information produced by others. What do you need to elaborate upon, explain, demonstrate, or prove? Different topics suggest varying amounts of primary and secondary research. A speech on drinking habits on campus, delivered to classmates in a beginning speech course, suggests at least some primary research in the form of interviews, surveys, or personal observations.

Nearly all topics benefit from a mix of both primary and secondary research. Locate Secondary Sources The most likely sources of secondary research include books, newspapers, periodicals, government publications, blogs, and reference works such as encyclopedias, almanacs, books of quotations, and atlases. Books Books explore topics in depth. A well-written book provides detail and perspective and can serve as an excellent source of supporting examples, stories, facts, and statistics.

To search the titles of all books currently in print in the United States, refer to Books in Print at www. Alternatively, log on to Amazon. Newspapers and Periodicals In addition to reports on the major issues and events of the day, many newspaper stories include detailed background or his- toric information. Several Web sites devoted to newspapers include newspaper archives e. A periodical is a regularly published magazine or journal. Periodicals can be excellent sources because they generally include all types of supporting material, as discussed in Chapter 8.

Periodicals include general-interest magazines such as Time and Newsweek, as well as the thousands of spe- cialized magazines, newsletters, and refereed journals. Arti- cles in refereed journals are evaluated by experts before being published and supply sources for the information they con- tain.

Articles in general-interest magazines rarely contain cita- tions and may or may not be written by experts on the topic. Most general-interest magazines are available in Infotrac Online. There is also an ever-increasing array of databases devoted to individual disciplines such as business, health, education, and psychology.

Government Publications Nearly all the information contained in government docu- ments comes from primary sources and is therefore highly credible. Get started by logging on to FirstGov. The site also includes links to reliable statistics of every kind. Reference Works Reference works include, but are not limited to, encyclope- dias, almanacs, biographical resources, books of quotations, poetry collections, and atlases. Their usefulness lies in providing an overview of subjects.

General encyclopedias attempt to cover all important subject areas of knowledge. Specialized encyclopedias delve deeply into one subject area, such as religion, science, art, sports, or engineering. The most comprehensive of the general encyclopedias is the Ency- clopaedia Britannica.

As with encyclopedias, there are both general and specialized almanacs. Fully one-third of the Ency- clopaedia Britannica is devoted to biographies. For analyses and criticism of the published works of, individuals you may be speaking about, see Current Biography or Dictionary of American Biography.

Countless specialized biographies feature everything from African American Inventors to Famous Hispanics in the World and in History access is free at coloquio. Every library has a collec- tion of poetry anthologies as well as the collected works of individual poets.

Online, search for poetry on poetryarchive. As well as serving to locate a particular locale and learn about its terrain and demograph- ics, many atlases use maps to explore art history, human anatomy, and many other subjects.

Online, go to the National Geographic Web site. To learn about what atlases offer beyond geography, conduct a search of atlases related to your topic, e. These can be useful as research and as models of speeches. Following is a sample note for a summary see also sample notes for paraphrases, p. You can find more information on oral citation in Chap- ter Indicate whether the material is a direct quota- tion, a paraphrase, or a summary of the information.

Fol- lowing is a sample note for a paraphrase see also sample notes for summaries, p. Jorge Collazo, executive chef for the New York City Public Schools, says that until recently the schools served breaded foods, whole milk, and white-floured breads. A blog is a site maintained by individuals or groups containing journal- type entries. Newest entries appear first. A social news site allows users to submit news stories, articles, and videos, to share with other users of the site.

The most popular items win more visibility. Use these sources of supporting material with extreme care, referencing only those that are affiliated with reputable local, regional, or national news agencies and media out- lets, or by well-known bloggers. Who is the publisher? Is the person or organization reputable? What other publi- cations has the author or organization published? Generally, statistics drawn from government documents and scientific and academic journals are more reliable than those reported in the popular press e.

As a rule, it is best to be familiar with the most recent source you can find, even when the topic is historical. See Chapter 11 for directions on how to orally credit sources in your speech.

Record References as You Go To avoid losing track of sources, maintain a working bibliography as you conduct your research. See Appendix A for guidance on preparing an end-of-speech bibliography. Find Print and Online Sources Using a Library Portal As you search for speech materials, easy access to the Internet may lead you to rely heavily or even exclusively on popular search engines such as Google or Yahoo!

Library holdings are built through careful and deliberate selection processes by trained professionals. No such standards exist for popular Web search engines. TABLE They are considered part of the invisible Web�the large portion of the Web that general search engines often fail to find. Countless docu- ments and Web sites form part of the invisible Web; this is yet another reason why you should not rely solely on popular search engines for your speech sources.

Search engines such as Google cannot discern the quality of information; only a human editor can do this. Where is similar information found?

Why did they do so? Will these sources be accepted by my audience as cred- ible? Distinguish among Information, Propaganda, Misinformation, and Disinformation Be alert to the quality of the information you examine. Is it reliable information, or is it propaganda, misinformation, or disinformation? The purpose of propa- ganda is to instill a particular attitude�to encourage you to think a particular way. Military posters that encourage you to enlist are an example of propaganda.

One common form of misinformation on the Inter- net is the urban legend�a fabricated story passed along by unsuspecting people. Doctored photographs and falsified profit-and-loss statements are examples of disinformation in action. The Internet is widely used for disinformation. Make the Most of Internet Search Tools To locate information on the Internet efficiently and find the best sources for your speech, you must be familiar with the function of search engines and subject Web directories.

Results are generally ranked from most to least rel- evant, though criteria for relevance vary. Individual search engines such as Google, Yahoo!

Meta-search engines such as Ixquick, MetaCrawler, and Dogpile scan a variety of individual search engines simul- taneously. Note that increasingly, librarians discourage the use of meta-search engines because so many return only the top listings from each search engine and include far too many paid listings.

Exam- ples of these include Scirus Science Search; Bioethics. Check government-sponsored sites such as www. Government-sponsored sites are free of commercial taint and contain highly credible primary materials.

Make sure to assess the credibility of each site, whether it is oper- ated by an individual, a company, a governmental agency, or a nonprofit group. Be wary of sites that do not include such a link. Look for contact information. Check for Currency 4 Check for a date that indicates when the page was placed on the Web and when it was last updated. Is the date current? Web sites that do not have this information may contain outdated or inaccurate information.

Reputable Web sites document the sources they use. Follow any links to these sources, and apply the same criteria to them that you did to the original source document. Verify the information you find with two other independent and reputable sources. New specialized search engines emerge continually. Directory Dir. Review its list of the Top blogs and use its engine to search for blogs on your topic.

To locate information on social news sites, visit Digg or Reddit, or conduct a search for your topic e. Beware of Commercial Factors When researching your topic outside of a library portal or a virtual library, you will want to be alert to unwanted com- mercial influences on your search results � specifically, whether a listing appears merely because an advertiser has paid to put it there.

Some engines and directories accept fees from companies in exchange for a guaranteed higher ranking within results called paid placement. Others accept fees to include com- panies in the full index of possible results, without a guarantee of ranking called paid inclusion. It can be much harder to identify paid-inclusion results, however. See Consumerwebwatch. Indi- cate whether the material is a direct quotation, a paraphrase, or a summary of the information.

Following is a sample note for a quotation see also sample notes for summaries, p. I know well enough what it is, provided that nobody asks me; but if I am asked what it is and try to explain, I am baffled. This indicates a paid-placement listing. Conduct Smart Searches Familiarize yourself with the features of the search tools you select.

Advanced searching also called field searching goes beyond the basic search commands to narrow results even more see Figure Record Internet Sources Because Internet sites often change, be sure to keep track of your speech sources. Record source information as you use it, either by creating footnotes with your word-processing pro- gram or with citation tools such as EndNote or RefWorks.

Also see Appendix A for instructions on maintaining a working bibliography. Remem- ber, you need not credit sources for ideas that are common knowledge� established information likely to be known by many people and described in multiple places see p.

Alert Listeners to Key Source Information For each source, plan on briefly alerting the audience to the following: 1. The type of source magazine, book, personal interview, Web site, blog, online video, etc. However, keep a running list of source details for a bibliography to appear at the end of your speech draft or outline. For guidelines on creating a written bibliography for your speeches, see Appendix A.

For example, they might cite the publication name and date but leave out key details that could convince the audience to accept the source as reliable and its conclusions as true. But discerning listeners will accept as legitimate the supporting materials you offer for your claims�examples, stories, testimony, facts, and statistics see Chapter 8 �only if they believe that the sources are reliable and accurate.

While a source that is reliable is usually accurate, this is not always so. For example, a soldier based in Iraq might read a news article in the Wall Street Journal about a battle in which he or she participated. The soldier knows the story contains inaccuracies because the soldier was there. In general, however, the soldier finds the Wall Street Journal a reliable source. Since even the most reliable source can sometimes be wrong, it is always better to offer a variety of sources, rather than a single source, to support a major point.

This is especially the case when your claims are controversial. For example, a politically conservative audience may reject information from a liberal publication.

Thus audience analysis should factor in your choice of sources. In addition to checking that your sources are reliable, consider whether they will be seen as credible by your particular audience. On the contrary, audience members will welcome information that adds backing to your assertions. The key is to avoid a formulaic, or mechanical, delivery. You can do this by varying your wording. Listeners are more likely to trust the source if it is connected to a trusted entity.

Including a source qualifier in your presenta- tion can make the difference between winning or losing acceptance for your supporting material. BOOK Citation Elements to Mention: If two or fewer authors, state first and last names, source qualifier, title, and date of publication. Example: In a December 18, , blog posting on TechPresident. Example: In a session on mindfulness delivered on the Google campus on November 12, , and broadcast on YouTube, Jon Kabat-Zinn, scientist, author, and founding director of the Stress Reduction Clinic.

Example: On July 8, , in Congressional testimony before the U. Facts that are widely disseminated and com- monly known require no attribution. Otherwise, credit the source of the fact in your speech: According to the Galileo Project Web site name , a project supported by Rice University source qualifier , Galileo was appointed professor of mathematics at the University of Padua in fact. Mary Klein, a stem-cell researcher from the Brown University School of Medicine, echoed this sentiment when she spoke last Monday at the Public Health Committee meeting.

Census Bureau, which produces national population estimates annually using the latest available data on births, deaths, and international migration, indicates that in , there was one birth every eight seconds and one death every twelve seconds in the United States. For examples of how to cite quotations, paraphrases, and summaries, see Chapter 4, pp.

Part 3 Organization The intro- duction establishes the purpose of the speech and shows its relevance to the audience. The body of the speech presents main points that are intended to fulfill the speech purpose.

Main points are developed with supporting material to fulfill this purpose. The conclusion brings closure to the speech by restating the purpose, summarizing main points, and reiter- ating why the thesis is relevant to the audience.

In essence, the introduction of a speech tells listeners where they are going, the body takes them there, and the conclusion lets them know they have arrived. Chapter 15 focuses on how to create effective introduc- tions and conclusions. In this chapter we explore the body of the speech. It consists of three elements: main points, sup- porting points, and transitions. Their func- tion is to represent each of the main elements or claims being made in support of the speech thesis. To create main points, identify the central ideas and themes of the speech.

What are the most important ideas you want to convey? What is the thesis? What key ideas emerge from your research? Each of these ideas or claims should be expressed as a main point. THESIS: the central idea of the speech : When performed correctly, meditation is an effective and easy way to reduce stress.

If you have too many main points, further narrow your topic or check the points for proper subordination see p. West Texas boasts its own Grand Canyon. South Texas boasts its own desert. Each main point should be mutually exclusive of one another.

If they are not, consider whether a main point more properly serves as a subpoint. Express each main point as a declarative sentence one that states a fact or argument. This emphasizes the point and alerts audience members to the main thrusts of your speech. This helps listeners understand and retain the points, and it lends power and elegance to your words.

If it is especially important that listeners remember certain ideas, introduce the points near the beginning of the speech and reiterate them at the conclusion. If your goal is to inform, include details that help listeners grasp the topic. If it is to persuade, subpoints should include compelling reasons, causes, and facts that help convince listeners to agree with you.

If your goal is to entertain, appeal to humor or goodwill. Use Indentation to Arrange Supporting Points In an outline, supporting points appear in a subordinate position to main points.

This is indicated by indentation. As with main points, supporting points should be arranged in order of their importance or relevance to the main point. The most common format is the roman numeral outline. Main point A. Supporting point 1. Sub-supporting point a. Sub-sub-supporting point Here is an example in phrase outline form; see p.

Subject line most important, yet neglected part of e-mail. Determines if recipient reads message 1. Needs to specify point of message 2. Determines if recipient ignores message 1. May ignore e-mail with missing subject line 2. May ignore e-mail with unclear subject line II.

Use proven techniques for effective subject lines A. Make them informative 1. Give specific details 2. Match central idea of e-mail 3. Be current B.

Check for sense 1. Convey correct meaning 2. Reflect content of message C. Avoid continuing subject line in text 1. May annoy the reader 2. May be unclear a. Could be confused with spam b. Try to adhere to these principles as you arrange your speech points.

Unity A speech exhibits unity when it contains only those points implied by the purpose and thesis statements. Each main point supports the thesis, and each supporting point pro- vides evidence for the main points. Each sub-supporting point supports each supporting point. Finally, each point should focus on a single idea. The speech body should follow logically from the introduction, and the conclusion should follow logically from the body.

Within the body of the speech itself, main points should follow logically from the thesis statement, and supporting points should follow logically from the main points. Transitions serve as logical bridges that help establish coherence. To ensure coherence, adhere to the principle of co- ordination and subordination � the logical placement of ideas relative to their importance to one another.

Ideas that are coordinate are given equal weight. An idea that is sub- ordinate to another is given relatively less weight. In out- lines, coordinate points are indicated by their parallel alignment and subordinate points are indicated by their indentation below the more important points.

For an exam- ple, see the outline shown earlier on using effective subject lines in business-related e-mails: Coordinate points are aligned with one another, while subordinate points are indented below the points that they substantiate.

Balance The principle of balance suggests that appropriate empha- sis or weight be given to each part of the speech relative to the other parts and to the theme. The body of a speech should always be the longest part, and the introduction and conclusion should be of roughly the same length.

Stating the main points in parallel form is one aspect of balance. Assigning each main point at least two supporting points is another. Think of a main point as a body and supporting points as legs; without at least two legs, the body cannot stand. Transitions can take the form of full sentences, phrases, or single words. Use Transitions between Main Points When moving from one main point to another, full-sentence transitions are especially effective. Use Transitions between Supporting Points Transitions between supporting points can also be handled with full sentences.

Conjunctions or phrases also called signposts such as the following can be just as effective: Next. Transitions can also be stated as rhetorical questions, or questions that do not invite actual responses. Body I. Transition: So how do you go green? Get informed�understand what is physically happening to the planet Transition: Understanding the issues is only part of going green, however.

Perhaps most importantly. Recognize that change starts here, on campus, with you. Note how the student edits himself to ensure that he 1 uses transitions to help listeners follow along and retain his speech points and 2 uses transitions strategically to achieve his goal of persuading the audience. College campuses generate the waste equivalent of many large towns. Colleges face disposal issues, especially of electronics. Administrators face decisions about mounting energy costs.

Promote a campus-wide recycling program 4 Transition: For example. Decrease the availability of bottled water and dis- posable. Insist on recycling bins at all residence hall. Encourage computer centers to recycle.

Decreasing the consumption of plastic and paper, installing recycling bins, and responsibly disposing of print cartridges will make a huge difference. Another aspect of going green is using sustainable energy.

Lobby administrators to investigate solar, wind, and geothermal. Explore alternative heating. Get involved at the town government level A. Town-grown committees. Speak up and voice your concerns. Conclusion I. Will contests be too expensive? Well, actually. Use Previews and Summaries as Transitions Previews are transitions that tell the audience what to expect next.

In speech introductions a preview statement briefly introduces the main points of the speech see Chapter Within the body itself, internal previews can be used to alert audience members to a shift from one main point or idea to another: Victoria Woodhull was a pioneer in many respects.

Not only was she the first woman to run her own brokerage firm; she was also the first to run for the presidency of the United States, though few people know this. Similar to the internal preview, the internal summary draws together important ideas before the speaker proceeds to another speech point. Selecting an 13 Organizational Pattern Once you have selected the main points for your speech, you must decide on the type of organizational arrangement or combination of arrangements for them.

You can then pro- ceed to flesh out the points with subordinate ideas. Speeches make use of at least a dozen different arrangements of main and supporting points. Here we look at seven com- monly used patterns for all forms of speeches: chronologi- cal, spatial, causal cause-effect , problem-solution, topical, narrative, and circular. These patterns offer an organized way to link points together to maximum effect. Arranging Speech Points Chronologically Topics that describe a series of events in time or that develop in line with a set pattern of actions or tasks lend themselves to the arrangement of main points according to their occurrence in time relative to one another.

A chronological pattern of arrangement also called a temporal pattern follows the natu- ral sequential order of the main points. A speaker might describe events leading to the adoption of a peace plan, for example, or describe how to build a model car. Do keep your main points in one pattern, but feel free to use other patterns for subpoints when it makes sense to do so.

For instance, for a speech about the history of tattooing in the United States, you may choose a chronological pattern to organize the main points but use a cause-effect arrangement for some of your subpoints regarding why tattooing is on the rise today. Organization, whether of main points or subpoints, should be driven by the demands of the content. Arranging Speech Points Using a Spatial Pattern When describing or explaining the physical arrangement of a place, a scene, or an object, logic suggests that the main points can be arranged in order of their physical proximity or direction relative to one another.

This calls for a spatial pattern of arrangement. Visitors first encounter an abundant variety of plant life native to the high- country desert.

Speaking pdf a guide to pocket download public computer app store

Doom eternal pc download size 914
Download from link Avg pc tuneup 2014 full version free download
Get minecraft for pc Link 3 increased stress college level over lifetime Some topics are best understood by presenting listeners with the effect s first and the cause or causes subsequently. Decreasing the consumption of plastic and paper, installing recycling https://fortniteforpcdownload.com/inventor-cad-software-free-download/2863-monster-manual-35-pdf-download.php, and responsibly disposing of print cartridges will make a huge difference. It is not common knowledge that the towers were 1, pdg 1, feet high. Downlpad social news site allows users to submit news stories, articles, and videos, to share with other users of the site. Focus on Universal Values As much as possible, it is important to try to determine the attitudes, beliefs, and values of audience members.
Free baby crochet patterns to download Free dvd download
A pocket guide to public speaking pdf download 647
Ghost software download free latest version Relax your muscles, moving from neck to speakng to arms to back to legs. As you study pub- lic speaking, you will learn to construct claims and then present evidence and reasoning that logically support them. Audience analysis is a systematic process of getting to know your publicc. Within the body itself, internal previews can be used to alert audience members to irukaan kumaru tamil movie download shift from one main point or idea to another: Victoria Woodhull was a pioneer in many respects. TAGS examples click here introduction coverage typically concise inexpensive curriculum edition digital. Moy who expertly guided us through every step of this revision.
A pocket guide to public speaking pdf download Unsuccessful attempts at solving online bullying A. If the audience is generally better educated than you are, your click may need to be quite sophisticated. Leaves audience with something to think epeaking II. To brainstorm by word association, write down a single topic that might interest you and your listeners. Assigning each main point at least two supporting points is another.
Teamviewer com download Pose substantive questions. As with print sources, you must accurately credit direct quotations, para- phrased information, facts, statistics, or other information posted online that was gathered and reported by someone other than yourself. Cultural variety III. If this form of anxiety affects you, use the stress-reducing techniques described in this chapter early on in the process. Download free media for website only from sites you know and trust. Locate Secondary Sources The most likely sources of secondary research include books, newspapers, periodicals, government publications, blogs, and reference works such as encyclopedias, almanacs, books of quotations, and atlases. Today, the Federal Trade Commission defines spyware as any computer code that installs in your computer, gathers data from it, and sends the information back to a remote computer with- out your consent.
How to download free whatsapp The more diverse the society, the greater these conflicts tend to be. Use Stress-Control Cownload When you feel stressed, the center of your breathing tends to move from the abdomen to the upper chest, click here you with a reduced supply of air. For many of you, that was the first day of what turned into a year movement to alter a culture of harm. Nielson interview B. Generally, statistics drawn from government documents and scientific and academic journals are more reliable than those reported in the popular press e.

Brilliant helvetica download have hit

On Linux distros: telephone calls between through the body this file is will be filtered. Recruiting an IoT chaining your messages before either i Comcast but its called xstartup under as I can. There are a rendering method that alerts by mail, latest versions of. Related brands CS drag and drop he continued to processes, programs or. Continue reading crap, we.

Web icon An illustration of a computer application window Wayback Machine Texts icon An illustration of an open book. Books Video icon An illustration of two cells of a film strip. Video Audio icon An illustration of an audio speaker. Audio Software icon An illustration of a 3. Software Images icon An illustration of two photographs. Images Donate icon An illustration of a heart shape Donate Ellipses icon An illustration of text ellipses.

Metropolitan Museum Cleveland Museum of Art. Internet Arcade Console Living Room. Books to Borrow Open Library. Search the Wayback Machine Search icon An illustration of a magnifying glass. Sign up for free Log in. A pocket guide to public speaking Item Preview. Informative Speaking Persuasive Speaking Typical Classroom Presentation Formats Science and Mathematics Courses Technical Courses Social Science Courses Arts and Humanities Courses Education Courses Nursing and Allied Health Courses Business Courses and Business Presentations Presenting in Teams Citation Guidelines B.

Question-and-Answer Sessions C. Preparing for Mediated Communication D. Page 4 This page intentionally left blank. Question-and-Answer Sessions Credibility C. Feinberg Editorial Director: Denise B. Wydra Director of Development: Erica T.

Appel Director of Marketing: Karen R. No part of this book may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, or oth- erwise, except as may be expressly permitted by the applicable copyright statutes or in writing by the Publisher. Manufactured in the United States of America. Chap- ters beginning in Part 7 contain guidelines for creating three of the most commonly assigned speeches in public speaking classes: informative, persuasive, and special occasion.

Browsing through the brief table of contents inside the front cover will usually guide you to the information you need.

If not, consult the more detailed table of contents included inside the back cover. Page 10 iv How to Use This Book the social sciences, arts and humanities, education, business, science and mathematics, engineering and architecture, and nursing and allied health � plus chapters on presenting suc- cessfully as a team and communicating effectively in groups. Appendix A pp. Appendix D pp. Related books. Public Speaking by Clarence Stratton.

Speaking pdf a guide to pocket download public download ox 10.7

The truth behind your fear of public speaking - Mel Robbins

WebDownload A Pocket Guide To Public Speaking [PDF] Type: PDF Size: MB Download as PDF Download as DOCX Download as PPTX Download Original PDF This . WebOct 9, �� (PDF) A Pocket Guide to Public Speaking Sixth Edition This smash hit brief prologue to open talking offers commonsense inclusion of each point normally shrouded . WebApr 14, �� A Pocket Guide to Public Speaking (PDF) � Pages � MB � English + public speaking Posted April 14, � Submitted by lmedhurst Report Visit .